Achene: A dry, single-seeded, indehiscent fruit with a thin and close fitting wall attached to the seed at one point.  It is derived from an inferior ovary and has no pappus attached.

Acuminate:  refers to a tip whose sides taper out to an extended point.

Aggregate (fruit): A fruit derived from several ovaries that fuse together after fertilization.

Alternate (leaves, buds, etc):  arranged singly at the nodes, at different heights and  on different sides of the stem.

Anther: The portion of the stamen (male structure) which produces the pollen.

Basal:  Arising from or attached to the base of the plant.

Berry: A fleshy fruit with multiple seeds; septa (walls) may be present inside the fruit.  Example: grape, tomato.

Bilabiate: two-lipped (used to describe a flower)

Bipinnately compound: referring to a compound leaf that is twice divided, with each leaflet divided into a stalk of smaller leaflets.  Example: Kentucky Coffeetree.

Bract: A modified leaf (often reduced in size).

Bud: A growing point of the plant.  An immature leaf, flower or shoot wrapped in a protective covering.

Bud scale: The protective covering on a bud.

Bundle scars: Marks within the leaf scar that show where the leaf and stem were attached via the vascular system.

Calyx: Refers to the sepals as a group.

Capsule:  A dry fruit derived from multiple (ovaries); capsules open (in various ways) to release the seeds.  Example: Poppy, snapdragon, lily, rose of Sharon.

Catkin:  An inflorescence with unisexual flowers, without petals, in a spike-like cluster; often pendulous.    Example: birch, oak, walnut.

Compound (leaf):  A leaf composed of two or more leaflets.

Cordate:  Heart-shaped

Corolla:  Refers to the petals as a group.

Corymb: A broad, flat-topped, inflorescence in which the outer flowers open first.

Cyathium:  A specialized inflorescence found in some members of the Euphorbia family.  It contains small, unisexual flowers crowded together and enclosed in bract-like structures.

Cyme:  A compound inflorescence, often flat-topped,  with the main axis terminating in a single flower which opens before the lateral flowers.  Example: arrowwood viburnum.

Cypsela: A dry, single-seeded, indehiscent fruit that is derived from a superior ovary and which has pappus attached.  Common in the Sunflower family (Asteraceae).