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Samara: A dry, winged fruit containing one seed. Example: ash, elm.
Scape: A leafless stalk of a flower or an inflorescence.
Schizocarp: A fruit developed from two fused ovaries; the two fruit separate from one another at maturity; each fruit contains 1 seed.
Sepal: the outer layer of floral parts, often (but not always) green and leaf-like in appearance.
Sessile: Having no stalk
Simple: A leaf that is not divided into leaflets.
Solitary: A single flower (as opposed to flowers in a cluster or inflorescence.)
Spadix: An inflorescence with a single thickened axis embedded with numerous small flowers.
Spathe: A large bract that subtends the spadix (the inflorescence found in the aroid family).
Spike: An inflorescence with a single axis and flowers without stalks.
Spur: A stem with very short internodes.
Stamen: the pollen-bearing organ of a seed plant, usually consisting of an anther and a filament.
Stigma: The top part of the female pistil. It receives pollen.
Stigmatic slit: The opening to the pistil of the milkweeds (Asclepias species)
Stipule: an appendage, often leaf-like
Strobilus: Cone-shaped reproductive structure common in gymnosperms.
Style: The section of the pistil located between the stigma and the ovary.
Subtend: Situated below another structure.
Tepal: When petals and sepals cannot be distinguished from one another, they are referred to as tepals.
Trifoliate: A compound leaf with three leaflets.
Triternate: A compound leaf with three leaflets, each of which is subdivided into three sections.